SchoolFoodMatters

The Perfect Espresso

Espresso is a shot sized serving of intensely flavoured coffee. There are many different types of espresso-based drink such as Latte Macchiato, Caffe Latte, Cappuccino and Mochaccino all of which are produced using a single or double shot of espresso.

Traditional espresso machines have long been synonymous with providing the ultimate coffee experience. These machines combine theatre with the artistry of a Barista to create exceptional espresso and espresso-based drinks. But what makes the perfect espresso?

There are several variables involved in the quest to produce the ultimate espresso. (more…)

traditional receipt

Visual and marketing and advertising market masters, Claire and Todd Venezia, released nowadays the launch of Evil Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses

Optical and advertising sector veterans, Claire and Todd Venezia, introduced nowadays the release of Evil Ray Bans Uk, a brand new line of affordable sun shades in classic and old-fashioned designs. Created from progressive, form-storage structures with plastic, polarized lenses, Evil http://www.raybanbuys.co.uk/ offer you something will not commonly exist in sun shades nowadays: fashion, good quality and comfort in a very inexpensive cost (just Bucks49 a pair).

The Venezia’s are using Indiegogo, a global crowdfunding system, to advance the 1st creation manage of those elegant, affordable sun shades. Anybody that leads to in between now and Dec 22, 2012 can be a single the first ones to get these wonderful sun shades at fantastic ideals, from Bucks30 to Bucks40 a pair according to their factor quantity.In .Evil Awesome Sunglasses give everyday you and us a option which doesn’t commonly exist in the sunglass industry nowadays,In . said Claire Venezia, an visual sector professional more than two decades. In .Until now, anybody needing sun shades had to either spend big money for top name sun shades that have an insane margin or find the low-cost, off-the-shelf sort that split after a couple of dons. There’s not a lot in between.In .

In .The thought for Evil Awesome Sunglasses began once we located some original Ray Ban Sunglasses Wayfarers half hidden in the yellow sand at our nearby beach,In . added Todd Venezia, a person advertising and personalisation professional. In .Claire and I believed why don’t you use our sector experience and connections to create a new line of sun shades that incorporate well-liked designs, progressive components, and comfort, but at a price most everybody can pay for.In .

Obtainable in two well-liked designs (classic and old-fashioned) and various shades, the structures for all Evil Awesome Sunglasses are manufactured from a powerful, light and portable, versatile thermoplastic. These form-storage structures maintain their original form even though tendency or turned. That strength and flexibility also allows you to change the framework to comfortably match your deal with.

The lenses on all Evil Awesome Sunglasses are constructed with plastic the industry powerful, tough plastic-type material so powerful that it’s used to make topic-proof glasses. The lenses are also polarized the industry daily technological innovation that lowers brightness to provide razor-sharp, crystal clear perspective even though avoiding harmful Ultra violet rays.

The entire line of Evil Awesome Sunglasses contains:

Incredible COOL: created for the thrill and cool, Evil Awesome could be the signature line of classic fashion unisex sun shades obtainable in 4 shades, have the ability to crystal clear framework fronts with either dark-colored, crimson, violet or discolored headsets arises. The lenses are dull.

Incredible Female: motivated by popular, trendy, ageless symbols like Jackie Kennedy and Katherine Hepburn, Evil Lady could be the females line of old-fashioned sun shades obtainable in 3 framework shades – dark-colored, dark brown, or tortoise layer. The lenses are dull for your dark-colored structures and dark brown for your dark brown and tortoise layer structures.

The Venezia’s invested weeks researching customer styles discovering a huge selection of coloration and substance options considering numerous framework designs producing a number of prototypes, completing extensive product checks and refining supply chain strategies. Now, they’ve got the perfect mixture of design, components, coloration, submission and, furthermore, an inexpensive cost.In .We’ve test product available and we’re a stride away from bringing Evil Awesome Sunglasses to showcase,In . claims Claire Venezia. In .Crowdfunding by way of Indiegogo will health supplement our wind turbine and be able to go into a scalable design.In .

Indiegogo is an intercontinental crowdfunding system used to elevate money for innovative jobs. People add money into a project, that are called campaigns. In substitution for their factor, allies since these individuals are known, obtain perks. Regarding Evil Awesome Sunglasses, allies will get one or more sets of Evil Awesome Sunglasses at fantastic ideals (from Bucks30 to Bucks40 a pair, well below the Bucks49 retail store price) using the level of their factor.

fruit salad

Lose Weight By Excluding Poor Quality Foods

Several people do not comprehend just how they must begin whenever needing to drop pounds. Somebody possibly will suggest doing exercises a lot more. Someone else may say eat additional vegetables and fruits. Getting all this guidance, commencing a nutritious fat loss program might be challenging. Nonetheless, an individual ought to understand if trying to lose weight many basic adjustments can assist with losing unwanted pounds.

For starters, a person must realize a little exercise in addition to consuming nutritionally sound food items are crucial in eliminating extra weight. Try seeing physical activity as freedom, instead of duty. Attempt to see food as fuel and not food calories. Dieters ought to try seeing removing extra weight like a reward to them as well as family members.

A terrific way to get more exercise each day is taking a walk during lunch break. A number of individuals use this time to socialize and eat their lunch. As an alternative, a person ought to devote one-half their lunch break walking. Taking an afternoon walk will improve stamina plus decrease tension. Best yet, whenever individuals can persuade another person to join them, then an individual is more apt to walk daily. An additional benefit of going for walks during lunch is individuals have even more free time after work to spend with family members.

One error a lot of dieters do regarding exercise is only doing a preferred exercise. As the human body becomes acquainted with that workout, a person uses smaller amounts of food calories. Nevertheless, a dieter should not discontinue their favorite activity, just mix it together with others. When fitness gets better, enhance intensity amounts to challenge a body and burn off additional calories. Thus, an individual ought to not forget to mix up workouts in order to remove unwanted pounds.

An individual should understand when trying to lose weight consuming healthy food products is important also. A human body requires foods to create fuel. What foods people eat determines the amount of energy a body will make. An individual ought to remember the body will only make energy dependent upon whatever is taken in. If junk foods are consumed an individual feels less energetic. Whenever nutritionally sound foods are ingested an individual feels full of life. Therefore, eating healthy food items will be crucial for dropping body weight. Additionally, a body must have healthy food items abundant with antioxidants, vitamins and minerals in order to work effectively.

miami-italian spaghetti

The Spirit of Coffee – Coffees of the World

Ever wonder where the coffee beans in your morning coffee come from? You probably know words like Arabica and Robusta in terms of taste, but did you know that these words can also tell us where those coffees were grown? Here is a look at three of the world’s best specialty coffees and the regions in which they originated. Read on to discover the rich history of these coffees.

Yemen Arabian Mocca

Grown in the mountainous region of Sanani in south Yemen at an altitude in excess of 4,500 ft, Arabian Mocca is the world’s oldest cultivated coffee, distinguished by its richness and full body with chocolate undertones. Yemen is on Asia’s Arabian peninsula, a stone’s throw from Africa. Since there are no other Arabian coffees, it is classified as part of the family tastes of North African coffees.

It is here that the term “mocca” was coined. Its correct spelling is Mokha, for the port city that Yemen coffees ship from. Yemen’s arid climate contributes to the production of one of the best-loved specialty coffees that led Europeans to fall in love with coffee many centuries ago.

Yemeni coffee is one of the most distinct and prized coffees in the world. It’s been called a “wild” or natural cup, earthy, complex, pungent — to some it may be strange and bitter. This coffee can also be characterized as dry, winey, and acidic with chocolate and fruit undertones, rustic flavors, and intense aromas.

(Source: http://www.sweetmarias.com/coffee.arabia.yemen.html)

Mexico “Spirit of the Aztec”

The state of Veracruz produces many average coffees in its low-lying regions, but atop the tall mountains near the city of Coatepec an excellent Arabica bean coffee called Altura Coatepec reigns. The word Altura itself means “high grown”. Altura Pluma indicates the finest coffee of Mexico. Coetepec, a coffee district of Veracruz, provides particularly outstanding coffee beans. Mexican Altura beans have a full medium body, fine acidity, a wonderful bouquet and a satisfying flavor that is mild and sweet. This fine Mexican coffee is noted for delivering a consistently smooth taste and fragrant flavor with good body, depth, and overall balance. It is likely one of the most underappreciated coffees around.

Mexican coffee botanists celebrate Mexico’s highest altitudes (with their approximately one hundred species of Arabica coffee plants) as the finest region of all the world’s gourmet coffees. An inferior grade of coffee bean known Robusta grows at lower altitudes. Mexico itself produces huge quantities of these unremarkable coffee beans, often utilized as dark roasts, supermarket coffees and beans for blending.

Arabica coffee arrived in Mexico at the start of the nineteenth century from the West Indies. Today, Mexico ranks among the world’s top coffee exporters. Most Mexican coffee is processed by the wet method to ensure better acidity and body. Mexican coffee is graded based on the altitude where it is grown. The plantations of Veracruz account for 60 to 70 percent of the Mexican coffee crop. Approximately 5 million bags of coffee a year originate in Mexico. Most of the better beans are grown on large plantations in the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Guerrero. These are producers of “high-grown” Altura Coatepec coffees, among the finest coffees grown in the Americas.

Their flavor is light and nutty with medium acidity and a mild, well-balanced body. With a fine chocolate tang and a hint of sweet undertone beneath the finish, these coffees make an ideal beverage for those of us who enjoy a smooth, mellow-tasting brew that is not overpowering. Altura’s smoothness produces many loyalists of the coffee drinkers who sample it. Mexican Altura Coatepec is an incredible morning coffee, as it could be used in a blend to tone down accompanying fuller-bodied coffees, or better yet, alone for the pure regional flavor.

(Source: http://www.coffeeuniverse.com/world_coffee_latin.html)

Java “Dutch Estate”

As a synonym of coffee, “java” introduced itself in the seventeenth century when the Dutch began cultivating coffee trees on the island of Java (part of the islands of Indonesia) and successfully exported it globally. Often the standard by which all other coffees are measured, Java’s finest golden beans are roasted to yield a piquant aroma, displaying an exquisite acid balance, a heavy body with chocolate undertones, and a lighter finish than Sumatran.

At one time the island of Java was ruled by sultans and dominated by mysticism. The early Dutch settlers who came in the late 17th century found Java to be a wonderfully diverse place with high mountains, thick tropical rain forests and a sultry climate that revolved around the monsoon rains. The Dutch and the Javanese settled the coastal volcanic plains, while much of the interior of the island was left to the jungle and a few tribal groups. The Dutch found that coffee grew very well in this climate, and began to set up plantations around their initial foothold in Batavia (modern day Jakarta). Initially Arabica coffees were planted, but many of these were killed by the coffee rust plague that devastated the region in the 1800’s. Robusta was the logical replacement — a tough plant resistant to many diseases.

Eventually the Dutch plantation owners conquered Java and took on the elements. Large plantations were established in the east of the island, as well as in Central Java and the west. After the Japanese occupied Java in the 1940’s many of these plantations were destroyed or absorbed back into the jungle with their owners imprisoned by the Japanese. After the war and the ensuing independence struggle, many of the larger plantations ended up under the control of the government. Today the big Java plantations (such as Nusantara XII) are still government-owned. However there are many medium and smaller growers who produce excellent quality Arabica beans. These coffees are known as “Government Estate” Java. They are primarily produced at 4 old farms (Kayumas, Blawan, Djampit, Pancoer). The Government body grows about 85% of the coffee in East Java, close to Bali on the Ijen area. The range of altitudes suitable for coffee production is 3,000 to 6,000 feet, with most growing in the plateau region at 4,500 feet.

SchoolFoodMatters

How to Brew a Great Cup of Coffee Every Time

Coffee is truly one of the pleasures of life. Not only can it pick you up in the afternoon, but the taste can be pure enjoyment. First, though, you need to know a few things in order to brew a great cup of coffee in your own home.

Beans

Great-tasting coffee starts with the best beans and a good coffee grinder. The burr type of grinder is the best. It can operate at slower speeds so your coffee beans are not subject to heat buildup as they are being ground.

With good coffee beans, a burr grinder, and an above average coffee maker, you can make a great cup of coffee at home that equals anything bought at a coffee house. The only other expense you will experience is any syrups or creamers you choose to put in. You’ll still be saving a lot of money by making your coffee at home.

What are the best beans to buy? What’s the difference between arabica and robusta, the two basic coffee species?

Arabica

There are two basic coffee variants: one is the traditional arabica, and the other is robusta coffee.

The shrubs that produce arabica coffee beans were said to have been planted by the descendants of the Queen of Sheba, who came from Ethiopia, where Coffea arabica originates. Arabica beans tend to have less caffeine and milder flavor than robusta. In fact robusta coffee beans have twice the caffeine.

Arabica coffee beans are considered to be superior in quality than robusta. All gourmet coffee beans are created from selected Arabic coffee beans.

Robusta

Robusta is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in commercial coffee blends and in almost all instant coffee products. Robusta of finer quality are used in espresso blends for a foamy effect and for better affordability.

High quality robusta is also used to blend espresso for more bite, and to lower costs. Robusta can be grown in climates and environments were arabica would not be profitable.

Not all robusta coffee is less expensive. Some robusta blends include the very popular Jamaican Blue Mountain and the Hawaiian Kona coffees which are so much in demand that they command a higher price.

Most Italian coffee is brewed very strong from the lower quality robusta bean, which might suggest why Italy gave us such innovations as cappuccino (coffee with steamed milk) and flavored coffees

Conclusion

There’s more to enjoying a good cup of coffee than grinding some beans, throwing them into a coffee maker, and drinking the result. To be able to truly enjoy a cup of coffee, start with a burr coffee grinder, an above-average coffee maker, and experiment with different flavors and blends of the best gourmet coffee.

Junk-Food

Do not Thaw Frozen Meat In Water!

IN thaw frozen meat, often times you put it in a container filled with water. Apparently, the wrong way!

Thaw frozen meat stored in a freezer due to long-term, by placing it in the water it is one of the fastest way of eliminating the existing ice content in the meat.

According Readerdigest, with water then put in the melting point of the meat will not work with most, especially nutrition and nutrient content in the meat will disappear, especially its solution will get into the water.

In addition, the temperature of the temperature factor is in the meat cooler with temperatures in the water must have been different. The temperature difference is what will accelerate nutrition and nutrition is in the meat so it disappeared.

Then, how the melting technique right? Defrost frozen meat should be done slowly, by putting frozen meat into the container and let the entire content of the ice cubes melt in the meat itself.

Warm conditions, there are no other material would quickly push the cold temperature. Do not even want to take off the wrapping meat when the meat melt.

Let loose wrapping up, when it melted all the liquid waste that is in the container, then open the wrapping.

After the cold temperatures that exist in the flesh was gone, then rinse the meat with water as this will make the cells in the meat will be together again.

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Pork and chicken dumplings

Pork and chicken dumplingsIngredients

150g pork mince
150g chicken mince
1 Tbsp light soy sauce
1 Tbsp oyster sauce
½ tsp sesame oil
1 Tbsp finely chopped ginger
½ cup water chestnuts, chopped
6 shiitake mushrooms (300g), finely sliced
2 spring onions, finely sliced
25 fresh white round wonton wrappers
2 Tbsp vegetable oil

Sauce

¹⁄³ cup light soy sauce
1 chilli, finely sliced
2cm-piece ginger,
cut into fine strips
1 tsp sugar
½ tsp sesame oil

Method

1 Combine pork and chicken mince, soy, oyster sauce, sesame oil, ginger, chestnut, mushroom and onion in a bowl. Mix until well combined.
2 Lay 5 wrappers on a clean bench. Using your fingertip, wet the outside edges with a little water. Put about 3 teaspoons of mince filling in the centre of each wrapper. Fold over to encase filling. Overlap edges in little pleats. Gently flatten base slightly so dumplings stand up. Repeat 4 times with remaining wrappers and filling.
3 Heat a non-stick frypan. Add a little oil. Fry dumplings in batches for about 1 minute or until base is crisp. Add 1 cup hot water, cover and cook for 5-6 minutes or until water has evaporated and dumplings are tender. Remove and keep warm.
4 To make sauce: Combine ingredients. Serve in dipping bowl or over the dumplings.

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Sproutarian

Vegetarianism and raw food enthusiasts fall into many different groups with different theories of what kind of natural foods are best. Most vegetarians eat fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains. Vegans eat no animal by-products at all, including dairy or eggs. Fruitarians eat primarily fruits. And some vegetarians eat only sprouts.
Sprouts are very nutritious because they contain all the elements a plant needs for life and growth. The endosperm of seed is the storehouse of carbohydrates, protein and oil. When the seed germinates, these become predigested amino acids and natural sugars upon which the plant embryo feeds to grow. This life force we eat is filled with energy which is capable of generating cells of the body and supplying us with new vigor and life. For this reason sprouts can retard the ageing process.

Sprouts contain goodly amounts of male and female hormones, as well, in their most easily assimilated form. Research shows that sprouts are among the highest food in vitamins. They are not only a low cost food but are also tasty and easy to grow. Children and the elderly can make sprouting a profitable hobby. All of us can profit from the boost to health they provide.

Almost any seed, grain or legume can be sprouted though some are tastier than others. You may try mung beans, alfalfa, wheat, peas, fenugreek, chickpeas, radish, fennel, celery seed, etc. These are most readily found in natural food stores. Remember to soak small seeds only for 4 hours and beans for 15 hours. You also can mix these seeds. Get a 2 liter wide-mouth jar and a piece of cheesecloth or old nylon stocking to fasten as a cover with a rubber band. Put seed into the jar as follows:
2 Tsps alfalfa, 2 Tsps radish or fenugreek, 1/4 cup lentils, 1/2 cup mung beans. Soak these seeds for 15 hours and drain the water. Afterwards rinse and drain well twice daily for about 3-5 days. If you wish to make larger amounts of sprouts, so you may share with others, place 2 cups of mixed seed into a large porcelain pot, in the bottom of which holes have been drilled for easy rinsing. Simply place underneath the faucet and rinse morning and evening with warm water. Cover with a plate. The seeds grow beautifully and abundantly in a few days.

Solazyme

Basic Tips When Creating and Executing a Fitness Guide

We live in a world where getting fit is becoming more and more desirable. There are gym advertisements every which way you look and advertisements for work out videos and weight loss books in every magazine you pick up. However, despite the popularity of working out, it will not happen overnight. Instead of subscribing to a fad workout or diet, you should develop a fitness guide that will keep you fit and healthy for a lifetime rather than for a few weeks. Part of any fitness guide is consistency and diversity. The following are some tips to help you develop and stick with a fitness guide.

Start Slow

If you are new to working out, then you need to start slow. This is not just because your endurance will be lower than other folks, but it is because if you do too much too soon, you risk seriously injuring yourself. Thus, do not expect to run a marathon in the first months of using your fitness guide. Instead, you want to build up your strength and endurance. Try new activities and monitor the affects on your body. You should try to do small repetitions of different exercises and work your way up when it comes to swimming laps or running.

Make Long- and Short-Term Goals

Next, when developing your fitness guide, it is important to really make goals that are both long- and short-term. Having goals will help you stay motivated. This is why it is so important to have short-term goals. The more goals you reach, the more likely it is that you will feel inspired to keep at your fitness guide and to change the way you live your life. Long-term goals are great too because you will be reminded of these when you reach your short-term goals.

Similarly, when you reach a goal, you should celebrate. This does not mean going out for a milkshake or eating a tub of ice cream in one sitting. Instead, do something that helps you stay with your fitness guide. Buy some new gym clothes, book a trip to an exotic location, buy books to help you understand your body, and treat yourself to a massage. This way, you can stay motivated and will have things that help your overall health.

Learn Proper Form

When it comes to a fitness guide, quality and not quantity matters: you need to do the exercises right or they will not be effective. Thus, instead of racing your way through crunches, make every single one count. Watch videos and talk to experts so that you learn how to do exercises properly. This is not only so that your exercises are effective but also so that you protect yourself from harm. If you are not lifting weights correctly, you risk severely hurting yourself. If you are hurt, you will not only be in pain but will have to curb much of your fitness guide.

Similarly, always stretch before any workout. This will make your fitness guide that much successful. This way, you can be sure that your muscles are ready for what’s to come, and you can avoid injury.

Create a Well-Rounded Guide

Lastly, when developing and executing a fitness guide, you need to make sure that you tackle all areas of your body. You want to do more than run. Instead, make your fitness guide as diverse and all-inclusive as possible. Include weight lifting of the arms and legs, work on your abdominal area with crunches and similar exercises, and get your heart rate up with swimming or running. Yoga is a great way to stay fit and to keep you limber and flexible. This way, you can be sure you are working your whole body and improving your overall health.

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Coffee Yesterday and Today

HOW about a cafezinho, freshly made and piping hot? For some, this custom is on the wane, but Brazilians still enjoy the fame of drinking coffee from early morning till late at night. Inflated cost of coffee has not caused a hurried switch to other drinks. In fact, one third of the world’s population still are coffee drinkers. For instance, every year the Belgians drink 149 liters (39 gallons) of coffee, compared with only six liters (1.6 gallons) of tea. The average American drinks 10 cups of coffee to one of tea. In the Western world, only the British break the general rule by annually consuming six liters of coffee to 261 (69 gallons) of tea.

Brazil holds the title as the world’s largest producer and exporter of coffee. In the first four months of 1977, receipts for exports of this “brown gold” reached the staggering total of $1,000,000,000 for 4.5 million bags, an all-time record.

However, coffee is not at all native to Brazil. Would you like to know how the use of this almost universal drink developed, where it originated, and how it got to Brazil?

Origin and Use

The word “coffee” is derived from the Arabic qahwah, meaning strength, and came to us through the Turkish kahveh. Coffee’s early discovery is shrouded in legend. One story tells about Kaldi, a young Arabian goatherd who noticed his goats’ frolicsome antics after nibbling on the berries and leaves of a certain evergreen shrub. Moved by curiosity, he tried the mysterious little berries himself and was amazed at their exhilarating effect. Word spread and “coffee” was born.

Originally, coffee served as a solid food, then as a wine, later as a medicine and, last, as a common drink. As a medicine, it was and still is prescribed for the treatment of migraine headache, heart disease, chronic asthma and dropsy. (Immoderate use, however, may form excessive gastric acid, cause nervousness and speed up the heartbeat. The common “heartburn” is attributed to this.) As a food, the whole berries were crushed, fat was added and the mixture was put into round forms. Even today some African tribes “eat” coffee. Later on, the coffee berries yielded a kind of wine. Others made a drink by pouring boiling water over the dried shells. Still later, the seeds were dried and roasted, mixed with the shells and made into a beverage. Finally, someone ground the beans in a mortar, the forerunner of coffee grinders.

Coffee in Brazil

Although coffee probably originated in Ethiopia, the Arabs were first to cultivate it, in the fifteenth century. But their monopoly was short-lived. In 1610, the first coffee trees were planted in India. The Dutch began to study its cultivation in 1614. During 1720, French naval officer Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu left Paris for the Antilles, carrying with him some coffee seedlings. Only one survived and was taken to Martinique. From Dutch Guiana coffee spread through the Antilles to French Guiana, and from there Brazilian army officer Francisco de Melo Palheta introduced it to Brazil by way of Belém, doing so about 1727. During the early nineteenth century, coffee cultivation started in Campinas and other cities of São Paulo State, and soon reached other states, especially Paraná.

Nowadays, coffee plantations are planned with technical rigidity. Instead of sowing seeds in the field, seedlings are cultivated in shaded nurseries. About 40 days after planting, the coffee grain germinates. Its unmistakable appearance gave it the name “match stick.” After a year of careful treatment in the nursery, the seedlings are replanted outside.

Usually on hillsides, the seedlings are placed in curved rows to make mechanized field work easier and to prevent soil erosion. Four years after planting, the trees are ready for the first harvest. All the while, irrigation boosts growth and output up to 100 percent.

On the other hand, the coffee grower’s headache is his never-ending fight against insects and plant diseases, such as leaf rust and the coffee-bean borer. Rust is a fungus that attacks the leaves and may kill the tree. The coffee-bean borer is a worm that ruins the beans by eating small holes into them. Of course, there are effective fungicides and insecticides, but their constant use increases production cost.

Preparation of the Coffee Beans

On the plantation, coffee may be prepared by either a “wash” or a “dry” process. It is admitted that the wash process yields a fine quality product, since only ripe coffee berries are selected. But because of less work and lower cost, Brazilian coffee usually goes through the “dry” process.

First, all the berries, from green to dry, are shaken off the bush onto large canvas sheets. Then they are winnowed with special sieves. Next, the berries are rinsed in water canals next to the drying patios, in order to separate the ripe from the unripe and to eliminate impurities. Afterward, they are spread out in layers for drying in the open air and sun. They are turned over frequently so as to allow even drying. Eventually, the dry berries are stored in wood-lined deposits until further use.

The drying process, by the way, is of utmost importance to the final quality of the coffee. Some plantations, therefore, use wood-fired driers for more rapid drying, especially in rainy weather.

In other Latin-American countries and elsewhere, the “wash” process is customary, although it is more time-consuming and costly. First, a pulping machine squeezes the beans out of the skin. They fall into large tanks where they stay for about 24 hours, subject to light fermentation of the “honey,” as the surrounding jellylike substance is called. After fermentation, the “honey” is washed off in washing canals. Next, the coffee is laid out to dry in the sun, as in the “dry” process. Some growers make use of drying machines, perforated revolving drums, in which hot air circulates through the coffee. Finally, the coffee beans pass through hulling and polishing machines. And just as the best quality coffees are hand-picked, so the inspection of the berries after washing is done by hand.

Soon the last step is taken–packing the coffee in jute bags for shipment. The 60-kilogram (132-pound) bag, adopted by Brazil, is held world wide as the statistical unit. Bags are stacked in clean, well-aired warehouses. At last, the coffee is ready for sale.

Classification, Commercialization and Cost

The Instituto Brasileiro do Café (IBC: Brazilian Coffee Institute) supplies technical and economic aid to Brazilian coffee growers and controls the home and export trade. For classification, coffee is judged by its taste and aroma. No chemical test for quality has ever been possible. The senses of smell and taste are still the deciding factors. According to its source, preparation and drying, it is classified as strictly soft, soft (pleasant taste and mild), hard (acid or sharp taste) and rio (very hard type preferred in Rio de Janeiro). Other types are less important to the trade.

For the last 20 years coffee has brought about 50 percent of Brazil’s export receipts. Some 15,500,000 persons are employed in its cultivation and trade. But Camilo Calazans de Magalhães, president of the IBC, warned that 1978 will present an unheard-of situation in the history of the coffee trade. For the first time ever, it will depend entirely on the harvest, as any stocks of Brazilian coffee outside Brazil will be exhausted by then. Additionally, the IBC fears that the specter of problems with frost, insects and diseases may unleash new losses in the 1977/78 and 1978/79 harvests.

Very recently, a series of misfortunes befell some of the world’s large coffee producers, causing scarcity of the product, price increases–and a lot of speculation. It all began in July 1975. Brazil was hit by an exceptional cold spell, which destroyed almost half the plantations, or 200 to 300 million coffee trees. Next, in Colombia, a drought, followed by torrential rains, devastated their plantations. In Angola and Uganda, political unrest affected exports. And then an earthquake struck Guatemala.